Punjab climate and Punjab is located in the northwest of India surrounded by Pakistan on the west, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on its northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan to its south. It covers a geographical area of 50,362 sq. km which is 1.54 % of country’s total geographical area. Punjab state is located between 29° 30' N to 32° 32' N latitude and between 73° 55' E to 76° 50' E longitude. Its average elevation is 300 m from the sea level in Punjab climate.
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Most of the land of Punjab is fertile plain but one can find the south-east region being semi-arid and desert landscapes. A belt of swelling hills extends along the northeast at the foot of the Himalayas. Punjab state is situated between the great systems of the Indus and Ganges rivers. Most of the state is an alluvial plain, irrigated by canals; Punjab's arid southern border edges on the Thar, or Great Indian, Desert. The Siwalik Range rises sharply in the north of the state.
Punjab climate and in Punjab, the soil characteristics are influenced to a very limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. Punjab wheather information and the variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences. Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types. The regions are: South-Western Punjab, Central Punjab and Eastern Punjab. Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zones II and III are referred to as Low Damage Risk Zone while zone IV referred to as high damage risk zone.